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Travel to Iran: Iran Travel Guide, Discover Iran Attractions, Destinations, Travel Information, Climate, Culture, Visa, Nature, Geography, Food & Drinks, Hotels and ...

The whole area of Iran can be divided in to four parts: 1/2 mountains as one part, and 1/4 deserts and 1/4 fertile plains as the other part. There are two major ranges of mountains called the Alborz and the Zagros.

  • The Alborz have been extended all the way from Azerbaijan to Afghanistan passing through the southern part of the Caspian Sea.
  • The Zagros have covered a region from Azerbaijan to the west and SE of the country.

These two ranges function as walls blocking meteorological phenomena from entering inside central Iran. In addition to these ranges, there are mountainous regions in central and eastern Iran.

The Mountains of North Iran

Arasbaran Mountains at the NW of Iran are located along the banks of a border river, Aras, with the highest peak called “Neshan Kuh” 3700m above sea level (ASL).

  • Sahand Mountains are located at the NW of Iran with the highest peak 3710m ASL.
  • Sabalan Mountains are located at the NW Iran with the highest peak 4811m ASL.
  • Talesh Mountains are located at the south of the Caspian Sea with their highest peak called “Aq Dagh”, 3200m ASL.

The Alborz Massif

The highest and widest area within the Alborz is at central Alborz with the highest peak of Iran called “Damavand”, 5671m ASL. It is a burned-out volcano with a crater of 400m width. At times, sulfur gas ascends to the top and covers the peak like clouds.

Khorasan Mountains

The Alborz extend to the NE of Iran and forms Khorasan mountains. Khorasan Mountains can be subdivided to some smaller ranges. The northern range is extended from “Kopet Dagh” to a river called “Hari Rud”. The central range is around Bojnurd and Quchan, with their highest peak at the south of Quchan 3520m ASL, create a marvelous view for the province. The southern range consists of some individual peaks with lower altitudes.

The Zagros Range

The peaks and altitudes of the Zagros have steep slopes, deep valleys and very narrow gorges. The major altitudes of the North are Border Mountains near Maku, Khoy and Qotur.

The central Zagros consist of several peaks more than 3000m ASL. The highest and wildest altitudes of the Zagros are Bakhtiary Mountains between Luristan and Shiraz plains.

Their highest peak “Zard kuh” is 4547m ASL. “Dena”, another peak in Fars province, is 5200m ASL. The altitude decreases as one goes southward.

The Mountains in the East

Extended from Khorasan to Sistan and Baluchestan provinces, there stand the Eastern Mountains of Iran that can be categorized into three major zones:

  1. “Jaam” in south Khorasan, is generally extended in E-W direction.
  2. “Qaen ” to the south of “Jaam”, includes “Ahangaran” peak, 2877m ASL.
  3. “Makran” is extended from “Zabol” to “Bam Posht” at Sistan and Baluchestan province. The highest peak in this region is called “Taftan”, a burned-out volcano, which stands in the SE of Iran with an altitude of 4050m ASL.
The Mountain Ranges in Central Iran

There are uninterrupted altitudes in central Iran. Some of them are connected to the Alborz or the Zagros. They can mainly be categorized into “Qahrud” and “Banan” mountains. “Qahrud”, which are longer and higher, start from around Kashan and the south of Tehran to Kerman. “Banan” are the continuation of the former one to “Makran” area in Sistan and Baluchestan province.  At these ranges, “Shir kuh” near Yazd is 4075m ASL.

The central part of Iran is a very significant region as far as minerals are concerned. There is a little rainfall during year, sudden changes in weather, strong winds, a few permanent rivers and flood producing rivers in this region.


List of Iran Waterfalls in description.

  • Lar Waterfall

Located in (a city of  Tehran province)

One of the important attractions of Lar is its waterfall, located near the village of Vana. This waterfall is endowed with spectacular beauty.

  • Owsoon and other Waterfalls

Located in Karaj (a city of Tehran province)

Other waterfalls of the province are as follows: Owsoon Waterfall in ‘Darband’, ‘Passang’ Waterfall en route to Sheer Palla shelter, ‘Sootak’ Waterfall north-west of Darband, ‘Shekar Aab’ Waterfall of Maygoon, …

  • Kord Olya Waterfall

Located in Esfahan (a city of Esfahan province)

This waterfall is located 90 km west of  Esfahan and is in the altitudes of  Dalan Kooh. The said waterfall gains its water from the melting snows of this mountain and is a picturesque sight in spring.

  • Ab Malakh and shalura waterfall

Located in Esfahan (a city of  Esfahan province)

Other waterfalls in this province are named as, the Ab Malakh Waterfall (in Semirom) and the Shalura Waterfall (in the Charmaheen Village of Ardestan).

  • Alamol Waterfall

Located in Amol (a city of Mazandaran province)

The said waterfall flows from the northern slopes of the Damavand Mountains, and is more than 100 m. in height. The massive output of water from this waterfall forms a spray like mist in the air.

  • Yakhi Waterfall

Located in Amol (a city of Mazandaran province)

This waterfall is spectacular in that it is completely frozen, and is at an elevation of 5,100 m. in the vicinity of the Dood Kooh Mountains near the Damavand Peak. The same has a height of 70 m. and is 3 m.

  • Goorgoor Waterfall

Located in Ardebil (a city of Ardebil province)

This waterfall is 12m. high and it is located in the northern slopes of Sabalan mountain. Along with other natural attractions such as glaciers and thermal springs of mount Sabalan, this waterfall attracts many nature lovers.

  • Bahram Beigy Waterfall

Located in Boyer Ahmad (Yasooj) (a city of Kohkilouyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province)

This waterfall is 30 meters in height and is located between Pataveh and Loadab Bahram Beigi in the southern sector of the Dena Mountains. Providing a glorious view, and located in heart of verdant plains.

  • Margoon Waterfall

Located in Boyer Ahmad (Yasooj) (a city of Kohkilouyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province)

This famous and great waterfall is located at the borders of the two provinces of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad and Fars. This waterfall is at the east of Yasooj and alongside the Margoon Village.

  • Yasooj Waterfall

Located in Boyer Ahmad (Yasooj) (a city of Kohkilouyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province)

This waterfall is a few km. from Yasooj city and to the right hand side of the route ending in Sisakht. It is in a narrow pass. This area is a tourist region specially in the spring and summer.

  • Other Waterfalls

Located in Boyer Ahmad (Yasooj) (a city of Kohkilouyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province)

Other important waterfalls in this province are the Tang-e-Tamoradi and Tesooj Waterfalls.

  • Harijan Waterfall

Located in Chaloos (a city of Mazandaran province)

This waterfall is located in the village by the same name near the Hezar Cham Gorge on Tehran – Chaloos Road. It has a height of more than 9 m. and is one of the beautiful waterfalls of the Alborz Mountains.

  • Ab Taf Waterfalls

Located in Dehloran (a city of Ilam province)

It is located around Dehloran with eye-catching landscape worth seeing.

  • Chakan Waterfall

Located in Dorood (a city of Lorestan province)

Chakan Waterfall is in the heights, over looking the valley of Chakan, south of Dorood. This waterfall comes out of a cave and is very much lengthy. The waterfall dries up gradually in the beginning of autumn.

  • Shevy Waterfall

Located in Dorood (a city of Lorestan province)

This waterfall is located in the village of Shevy in the district of Dorood, and gushes out of a cave. This waterfall draws hordes of people to the site in the spring season.

  • Dashtak Abraj Waterfall

Located in Eqleed (a city of Fars province)

The Dashtak Abraj region is situated in the Eqleed township. This place has eye-catching landscapes, the most attractive ones are the two magnificent waterfalls which are used as recreational sites.

  • Dareh Eshq Waterfall

Located in Farsan (a city of Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiyari province)

This waterfall is more than 100 m. height and gushes out from the heart of the mountain in such a way which is considered as a spectacular sight of its own. It can be noted as one of the tallest waterfalls in Iran.

  • Ganj Nameh Waterfall

Located in Hamadan (a city of Hamedan province)

This waterfall is one of the most important waterfalls of the province, near the city of Hamadan and at the tail end of the recreational area of Abbas Abad Valley.This waterfall flows down from a height of about 12 m.

  • Cham Aava Waterfalls

Located in Ilam (a city of Ilam province)

Located 18 kilometers from Ilam on the Ilam – Saleh Abad Road between Chamaw village and Marbereh region, this high waterfall is formed between rocks and flows down. Finally, it ends at the Godar Khosh River.

Iran is situated in a high-altitude plateau surrounded by connected ranges of mountains. The well-known deserts of Iran are at two major regions: 1)  Dasht-e-Kavir, and 2) Kavir-e-Lut. They are both some of the most arid and maybe hottest areas of their kinds in the world.

The desert Pits of Iran

Kavir-e-Lut is the largest pit inside the Iranian plateau and probably one of the largest ones in the world. Kavir-e-Lut is a pit formed by broken layers of the earth.

The maximum annual rainfall is approximately 100 mm there. The average altitude of this desert is almost 600 m above sea level (ASL) and the lowest point near “khabis” is almost 300m ASL. In Kavir-e-Lut, large amount of sand is always moving southward forming sand hills and running sand masses.

Dasht-e-Kavir is a geological pit almost at the north of Kavir-e-Lut. The minimum altitude of this desert is 400 m ASL. The major part of Dasht-e-Kavir is covered by sand and pebbles and exposed to strong winds and storms that set salt-combined sand in motion like sea waves. At times, this phenomenon forms long sand hills of 40m high.

From structural point of view, Dasht-e-Kavir is very much different form Kavir-e-Lut. The difference of temperature between days and nights during a year in Dasht-e-Kavir is between 0 and 70 degrees C.

The Ecological Conditions of the Desert

Some of the ecological features of the deserts in Iran are strong sunshine, relatively little humidity, little rainfall and excessive vaporization. Depending upon how far a point is from higher altitudes, temperature is varied.

A point far from altitudes can reach up to 60 degrees C during summer. The average temperature during January and May are 22 degrees C and 40 degrees C respectively. In general, the ecological conditions of the deserts in Iran are so severe that they are not tolerable either in summer or winter.

It rarely snow there. The annual relative humidity is below %30. During summer, it decreases, at times, down to %0. It usually rains during winter and sometimes showers that leads to wash away the earth. It goes without saying that there cannot be proper and enough soil and water for plants to grow. Since these regions are always open to winds and there are not sufficient plants to preserve soil, wind erodes the earth and brings about losses. Therefore, blocking winds by wood-made walls and planting shrubs and trees are carried out to confront the destructive natural forces.

Living Situation in the Deserts

It is always water that determines life situation everywhere. Again it is only water that helps plants grow and people stay in an area within the desert. Water is not easily accessible at every corner of the deserts.

Life goes on at the areas where water can be found in springs or through the ancient technique of making underground aqueducts called kariz (qanat). At times, semi-deep wells are dug to get water. So, desert dwellers make the most of the minimum water they get. Local people use the highly tolerant animals, camels, to travel through the desert. Usually vine or similar trees with deep going roots are planted so that they could survive.

Making a Living in the Deserts

People live only in oases in small scales and they rely on farming, herding animals and migrating. They have to plant wheat, barley, fruit trees and alike. In some areas, farming is also in vain. So, they have to make a living just by herding cattle. When neither of the above helps, they have to migrate to somewhere else in search for better living conditions.

Accommodation & Clothing

Sun-dried brick, raw mud and in some areas a limited quantity of stone are the only constructional materials used to build houses. Walls have to be built very thick for the sake of insulation and roofs have to be built in cupola or vaulted forms to last longer.

People are usually dressed in bright colors and clothing is mostly made of cotton. They are loose and long unless people are influenced by city dwellers’ culture.

Although the Iranian plateau forces its compelling situations, its inhabitants struggle for preserving living conditions. These hard working people, who have been struggling for thousands of years in the desert, will not give up so easily.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]


Popular Beaches of Iran

Iran enjoys many different beaches with different mood and a wide range of holiday experiences. Shores of the Caspian Sea have mild and relatively cold weather and southern parts enjoy moderate and pleasant weather. 
The coastline of the Persian Gulf in the south is rocky and mountainous in some areas and sandy and swampy in others; it is not as even as the northern shores of the country. 

Kish Island Beaches 
The coral coasts of Kish Island, a pearl across the turquoise waters of the Persian Gulf, have a special glow under the sunlight. The seawater near the coasts is so clear, that one can see the depths of the sea and all its aquatic life that are unique in their kind. 

These beaches are safe and there are no dangerous creatures in the region; thus those interested in fishing and swimming can go for their favorite sports. Tourists can benefit from Kish sandy beaches, coral reefs vivid with colorful fish and sea and sun all year round. 

Facilities such as a recreational jetty, glass-bottomed boats, motorboats, and scuba diving equipment are available on the beaches. 

Beaches of Iran - By Ramin Shoraka   Beaches of Iran - By Arne Uusjarv   Beaches of Iran, Northern Iran - By Alieh Saadatpoor 

The Caspian Coast
Caspian Sea, the largest landlocked lake in the world, is located in northern Iran. The Iranian Caspian coast including the three littoral provinces of Gilan, Golestan and Mazandaran, with its thick forests and large-scale rice paddies presents a striking contrast to the dry inner plateau of Iran. 

A four-hour drive from Tehran, the Caspian is Iran's Riviera, with a narrow plain of paddyfields and orchards separating the sea from forested mountains where bears and leopards roam around ruined Mongol castles. 

There are several roads connecting Tehran to the three provinces, all through breathtakingly beautiful scenery, across the mountains or alongside rivers. One of the roads from Tehran to Chalous on the Caspian coast, winding north across the rugged Alborz mountains, passes the popular ski resort at Dizin. 

With their tropical climate in summer and mild winters, beautiful sandy beaches, scenic beauty and proximity to the capital the three provinces are very popular among Iranians as a holiday and weekend resort and attract the hordes. 

Numerous holiday and residential complexes, private villas, leisure facilities and holiday homes dot the landscape. 

Beaches of Iran - By Hesam R   Beaches of Iran - By HomaPix   Beaches of Iran - By Varahran 

Chabahar Seaport 
Chabahar is a seaport on the Oman Sea in southeastern Iran, where is the coastal area of the Oman Sea. Due to the prominent position it enjoys regarding access to the free waters, in addition to other aspects such as trade, commerce and navigation this part of Iran holds specific location. The winter months can be best for water sports and recreation. 

On the coast of the sea, particularly in the southern region of Chabahar is a rocky coastal area with a beautiful landscape, specially during sunset. Parts of the shores of the Oman Sea is greatly valued for its recreational areas and those concerning the safe swimming zones, canoeing, water skiing and other such sports. 

The Oman Sea contains various minerals and a variety of water species, in particular algae and plankton. These have a positive affect on the human body. 

Caves and hills in a depth of 15 meters would bewilder any viewer. The sea in this part is intact and the aquatics are not afraid of divers. Chabahar coasts provide the best choice for water adventures such as windsurfing, diving and underwater excursions.

Beaches of Iran, Kish - By Hamed Saber   Beaches of Iran, Kish Beaches - By Ramin Shoraka   Beaches of Iran - By Hossein Mosaferi 

Bandar Abbas Seaport and capital of Hormozagan Province 
It is located on the south of Iran at an elevation of 15 meters above sea level and overlooks the strategic Strait of Hormoz. Bandar Abbas is the largest and the most equipped port, which occupies a strategic position of the greatest importance. In summer it gets sizzling hot and very humid here, but it's pleasant enough to visit in winter. 

The wide beaches are covered with silky sand, cleansed by fairly ample tides. The gentle slope provides a safe playground for children. The newly constructed hotels offer gardens, swimming pools and playing fields 

The coast of this province is of two types,i.e., sandy and rocky. The latter in itself is a wonderful sight worth seeing. Being of limestone and due to the active water erosion, leaving beautiful and natural impressions behind. The sandy shores, however, provide recreational areas for water sports. Bushehr being close to the cities of Abadan, Bandar-e-Abbas, Shiraz in Iran; including other countries of Persian Gulf such as Kuwait and Bahrain, attracts many tourists and visitors during the winter season. 

Beaches of Iran, Chabahar Beaches - By Alireza Bolhari   Beaches of Iran - By Bahar Yado   Beaches of Iran - By Mohamad Hajian 

Beaches of Iran - By Ehsan Khakbaz   Beaches of Iran, Lake Urmia - By Mehrad.HM

Beaches of Iran, Chabahr - By Azar Zamiri   Beaches of Iran - By Mahyar Kakaee 

??????? ????? More than one-tenth of this

country is forested. Plentiful rainfall, a mild climate, and a long growing season have combined to create a dense forest of high-quality timber in the Caspian region. There is an extensive growth of temperate-zone hardwoods, including oak, beech, maple, Siberian elm, ash, walnut, ironwood, alder, basswood, and fig.

About half of the Caspian forests consists of these trees; the remainder is low-grade scrub. The Zagros Mountains in the west and areas in Khorasan and Fars provinces abound in oak, walnut, and maple trees. Shiraz is renowned for its cypresses. More than 2,000 plant species are grown in Iran.

The land covered by Iran’s natural flora is four times that of the Europe’s. Nature of Iranian Forests Living-in-Nature-IranThe Iranian forests belong to the European-Siberian growth region in the Holoarctic. This region includes parts of Europe and Northern Asia. The climate varies from cold to moderately warm weather. From the flora perspective, this region could be divided into the sub-regions of Northern, Atlantic, Central Europe and Pontic. The Pontic sub-region in the Middle East are represented by Accino-Hircnai Province. This sub-region includes northern Turkey’s mountains, the northern slopes of the Alborz mountains and the coastal areas in its vicinity. This is well adapted for the growth and expansion of forests and its annual rainfall is more than 1,000 mm. A part of this region enjoys summer rainfall as well. The flora of this region consists of 40% European-Siberian species, 22% Mediterranean-European-Siberian and 8% Iranian-Turanian. One of the most notable features of this region is its suitable environment for those groups of flora that were in danger in Europe at the expansion phase of cold weather in the later years of the Third Period (Newgeon Period). This grouping of flora expanded rapidly in this region and became part of the endemic species. There are other sub-provinces called the Hyrcanica that has less richness, but still enjoys a variety of tree species. It is divided into three groups. One of these groups is the Alnetea Hyrcanica, which includes various species like the forests of the Caspian coastal area. Iranian forests can be categorized ecologically as consisting of the following biomes:

1. Caspian broadleaf deciduous forests

2. Arasbaranian forests

3. Zagrosian forests

The important species of trees on commercially usable forests are: Beech Fagus orientalis Hornbeam Carpinus betulus Oak Quercus castaneifolia Alder Alnus subcordata Maple Acer velutinum Linden Tilia caucasica Persian iron wood Parrotia persica Forest Distribution and Specifications

Golestan Province:

golestan forst

Gorgan-IranThe entirety of the southern and southwestern areas as well as parts of the eastern regions of the Gorgan plain is covered with forest, totaling an area of 421,373 ha in 1998. There are three forest parks totaling 1,224 ha and there is 2,930 ha of artificial forests. The total production from these forests is estimated at 269,022 cubic meters.

Mazandaran Province:

mazandaran forest


-IranThe total area of the forest in this province is estimated at 965,000 ha which is mainly comprised of broad leaf trees. The forests in the eastern part of the province are connected to the Minoodasht and Golestan forests and are distributed at two major regions, Sari (645,000 ha) and Nowshahr (320,000 ha). From these forests, 487,195 ha are used commercially, 184,000 ha are protected and the rest are regarded as forest lands or over-used forests. There are 11 forest parks totaling an area of 5,494 ha and 29,877 ha of artificial forests.

Guilan Province:


gilan forest



IranThere were 567,524 ha of forests in Guilan province in 1998 out of which, the Astara area with about 80,000 ha ranks first in the region. These forests are graded 1-2-3 with an area of 107,894; 182,758 and 211,972 ha respectively. The area of artificial forests in 1998 was estimated at 1,062 ha, there are also 16 forest parks totaling 5,394 ha, and 5 forest biospheres totaling 2,373 ha. The commercial and non-commercial utilization is 310,375 cubic meters (184,202 cubic meters for commercial and 126,173 cubic meters for non-commercial use). Current Condition Mazandaran-IranAccording to an estimate made by the Forest and Range Lands Organization, the total area of the Caspian forest in 1963 was 3,420,487 ha . In 1980, a new inventory was made which estimated the total forest area at 1,900,000 ha. During the last 13 years, there has been a continuing degradation of forest area, so much so that today the total area of the Caspian forest is approximately 1,800,000 hectares. If the areas that receive more than 500 mm of precipitation were considered forests, the total area would be about 3,600,000 ha. In addition to dimensional degradation, the forest’s standing crop or biomass is also being destroyed. Before destructive exploitation, the average biomass of the Caspian forest was about 300 tons per ha. Today the average is less than100 tons per ha. In altitudes lower than 600 meters, the areas have been almost completely cleared of valuable timber. The situation is similar in high altitudes where the inhabitants of sub-alpine pastoral areas have devastated the sub-alpine forests by selective removal and later by complete removal of vegetation. 


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